History stuff

I had to work on a history project for school. There were certain terms I had to look up information on. Though I wanted to go in-depth with all the terms, I had to quicken the pace because of time, unfortunately. The history project will be between two hyphens (-).

This is a disorganized post with scattered yet valuable information, some personal and subjective (when I felt like writing something about myself), most objective (where I just state the facts).

Source: https://www2.gwu.edu/~erpapers/teachinger/glossary/progressive-era.cfm

The Progressive Era spanned from 1890 to 1920. Progressives were essentially people who participated in what began as a social movement (and became a political movement) for change. They disagreed with social Darwinism and sought to improve society through education, a safe environment, and an efficient workplace. Voices in the movement included Jane Addams, a social reformer, and Ida Tarbell, a journalist. Social reformers and journalists played a large role in the movement.

A referendum is a decisive vote made by the electorate on a political question they have been sent. The electorate consists of all the people in an area who vote during an election. Nowadays voters make referendums, though they didn’t always. During the progressive era, leaders encouraged Americans to vote on important issues and to prevent political corruption. American fear of immigrants was also fought against by progressives, as well as “corporate greed.”

In 1901 Theodore Roosevelt became president, 2 years before the Wright brothers went on their first airplane flight. He was helpful to the progressive movement because, even though he thought it was good for there to be “strong corporations,” he also disagreed with corporate greed and brought many monopolies down. This means that he prevented many companies from having complete or near-complete control of a market, as this would allow them to make the prices as high as they liked, and that would not be good for the public. The public liked competition instead, where prices were kept low and quality was kept high as a result of it. Roosevelt busted trusts, “trust” being an outdated term used to refer to companies that seek a monopoly or have a monopoly. Roosevelt also thought it was a good idea for there to be “federal regulation of business,” all to prevent corruption.

World War 1 started in July of 1914, ending the Progressive Era.

(Source: http://www.history.com/topics/william-jennings-bryan):

The US Congress, the nation’s legislative body, meets in the Capitol Building in Washington DC. The Congress consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Born in Illinois, William Jennings Bryan started off as a congressman for Nebraska. He ran for president at least 3 times, but was defeated. In-between campaigns he focused on public speaking and running a newspaper. He helped Woodrow Wilson run for the presidency, and became Secretary of State when Wilson was elected. The Secretary of State is the head of the State Department, a department in the US executive branch focused on foreign relations.

Suffrage is the right to vote, which was one of things Bryan was in favor of. When he moved to Nebraska after marrying, he was elected as a member of Congress, and re-elected. He supported the Populist party. Bryan was nominated for president by the Populist and Democratic parties after his impactful Cross of Gold speech. However, he did not win the presidential election.

Like social worker Jane Addams, William Jennings Bryan disagreed with President McKinley’s Philippine policy (after the Spanish-American war) on the basis of it being imperialism.

In total, Bryan ran 3 times for president, and was unsuccessful. When Woodrow Wilson became president and Bryan became Secretary of State, Bryan promoted treaties (agreements) stating that if another country and the US got into a dispute, they would wait a year before going to war; they would allow each other time to “cool-off.” Bryan understandably was hesitant about going to war, taking what measures he could to prevent the public from agreeing with the prospect. Shortly after the Germans sunk the Lusitania, Bryan resigned from his post, not wanting to do anything that might tip the scales in the direction of war; not wanting to contribute to the American desire to fight.

(Source: http://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/jane-addams):

Jane Addams:

Belonging to the first generation of women who went to college, Addams was a social reformer and pacifist who chose to live with her college friend Ellen Starr in an old mansion in an immigrant neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois, inspired by English reformers that had chosen to live in slums. She lived there all her life, choosing to not get married and instead dedicate her life to changing society and helping its poor. The mansion would be Hull-House, and Addams benefitted the community by providing what she could for its needs: she provided a playground, gymnasium, nursery, etc. Hull-House attracted other social reformers. Addams realized that for the change she wished to bring about to occur, changes had to be made in the city and state legislature. Along with other Hull-House residents, she “sponsored legislation to abolish child labor, establish juvenile courts, limit the hours of working women, recognize labor unions, make school attendance compulsory, and ensure safe working conditions in factories.”

Many of these ideas for reform were adopted by the Progressive Party. Addams strongly supported Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency, as well as women being given the right to vote. She made her ideas known through writing and lecturing, arguing in one particular text that Americans should accept immigrants’ different culture while introducing them to that of America.

She tried to get President Woodrow Wilson to negotiate instead of plunging America into war, but this didn’t work, and she was criticized for her actions. On a national scale, she worked to increase food production to feed the hungry in Europe, and after WW1’s armistice she helped found the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, of which she was the president until her death in 1935. In 1931 her efforts awarded her the Nobel Peace Prize.

(Source: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h917.html):

The Pure Food and Drug Act (1906):

The muckrakers, as they were called, had succeeded in informing the public of the increasing addictions to medicines and the lack of safety of the food produced by food manufacturers. President Roosevelt first introduced the Meat Inspection Act, followed by the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, the purpose of which was to prevent misbranding and adulteration. By preventing adulteration in particular, foods’ ingredients could not be harmful to human health.

The Food and Drug Administration was formed to test the safety foods and drugs meant for human consumption. Provisions were also added to ensure that people could not simply purchase drugs without a prescription from a licensed physician. Drugs that had addictive potential came with labels to inform customers of this. Consequences were also laid out for food distributors and manufacturers. It was not guaranteed that the bill would be passed in Congress; however, President Roosevelt’s efforts countered the hesitation. That the fact that some Congress members opposed the bill seems ridiculous: it seems like a basic right for people to be informed of what they are consuming. I question the morality of those who opposed the bill.

Roosevelt was influenced by the book The Jungle by Upton Sinclair. Amazingly, few medicines that had been available for purchase prior to these provisions were approved of by the FDA; this means that most medicines were considered unsafe for human consumption. Incorrect labeling also was a problem, requiring new provisions to come into effect by those concerned with public health.

The Wheeler-Lea Act, which came later, had the purpose of making it illegal to lie or give misleading information about a product or service “through product markings or advertising when such advertising was spread beyond the boundaries of a single state.”

(Source: https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/content/fed-meat-act.html):

The Meat Inspection Act (1906):

Upton Sinclair’s book The Jungle described the unhealthy practices of Chicago’s meat-packing district, and horrified the public to the point of them demanding changes in the meat industry. Theodore Roosevelt, then president, sent Charles P. Neill to officially examine the situation, discovering that things were even worse than Sinclair had written. The Meat Inspection Act was passed in 1906, shortly after this. It was in the same year that Sinclair’s novel was published. This act was the beginning of federal regulation of the nation’s supply of animal products for human consumption. Only after the creation of this act was the FDA created.

(Source: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Meat-Inspection-Act):

The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 stands today to protect consumers by preventing adulterated and/ or incorrectly-labeled animal products intended for human consumption from being sold. It also ensures that meat is “slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions.” The Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was not the first, but it amended previous ones. It, too, would be further amended in 1967. The Act had the Department of Agriculture inspect the safety of livestock before and after slaughter, and it also checked food transported into the country.

There were many factors contributing to the reforms which took place. For one thing, Harvey W. Wiley, an American chemist who headed the Bureau of Chemistry of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, realized that chemicals used for coloring and preserving food were harmful to human health.

The public was made aware of the faults in meat-packing industries when, during the Spanish-American war, it was reported (by the press) that canned meat provided to the troops by Armour & Co. was rotten. It made many soldiers fall sick and some even died as a result. The company had knowingly packaged and sold rotten meat, as later said by former manager Thomas F. Dolan. Bolic acid, harmful to humans, was used as a preservative and to cover up the smell of the rotten meat. I’m appalled that companies would resort to such inhumane practices for profit.

(Same source):

Upton Sinclair:

Upton Sinclair was a journalist for a socialist magazine, and his influential book The Jungle, published in 1906, came out of his deciding to cover a labor strike performed by Chicago workers. He wanted to show the Beef Trust’s treatment of its workers. He meant to show only the working conditions, but ended up also showing the meatpacking practices which horrified to the public to the point of them demanding reforms (as I already mentioned). I already told how Sinclair’s writing influenced Roosevelt. Sinclair’s purpose in writing the novel had been to promote socialism. The public, including Progressives, demanded changes in the way that government regulated industry.

Roosevelt sent two men to investigate the Beef Trust. They confirmed what Sinclair had said and found that conditions were actually even worse. Roosevelt used the knowledge that the two men, Reynolds and Neill, had brought with them to make the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act laws in 1906.

(Source: http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/1999/04/21/32dewey.h18.html):

John Dewey:

During the Progressive Era, John Dewey wrote extensively on education in a time in which American education changed greatly. Born in Burlington, Vermont in 1859, he died in 1952. He founded the Laboratory School of the University of Chicago (which was an elementary school) and there he was able to implement his educational theories.

(Source: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h988.html):

Robert La Folette:

La Folette was born in and studied in Wisconsin to receive a law degree. Eventually he was elected to Congress, serving three terms in the House of Representatives. He was unable to secure a fourth term, as he helped draft the McKinley Tariff of 1890, and this was unpopular with his constituency; that is, the body of people who had voted for him and were in favor of him disagreed with his helping draft the tariff. In 1900 La Folette was elected governor of Wisconsin. La Folette identified with the Republican Party. As governor, he made reforms, such as increasing control over railroads and modifying the tax system. When he gave up his position as governor for a seat in the Senate, he continued pushing for reforms. He thought about running against William Howard Taft for the presidency, but when Roosevelt changed his mind and decided to run as well, supporters of La Folette turned to supporting Roosevelt instead. La Folette remained a senator until his death.

(Source: http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/sherman-antitrust-act.html):

The Sherman Antitrust Act (1890):

Named after senator John Sherman, the act was made law to prevent companies from becoming too powerful in this way. When the act became law, federal authorities were given the ability to break trusts, but the Supreme Court prevented this for years. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt’s support of the act (and busting trusts in general) encouraged federal authorities to use it for trust-breaking purposes. In the future, acts such as the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 would further serve the trust-busting purpose.

(Source: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/history-child-labor/):

Child labor:

Child labor was desirable to factory owners because factory machines that were power-driven had no need for adult strength (they could be operated by children), and those children could be paid less than adults. The child laborers often fell sick because of the long hours they had to work, not having time for play and school, and having only little time for rest. Children who labored came mostly from poor families. Some of them had parents who couldn’t support them. The cruelty did not go unnoticed. Britain passed laws controlling child labor before the US did, ones which increased the minimum age of laborers and ensured there were better working conditions and shorter working hours.

Though in the US an amendment prohibiting child labor was not passed, the Fair Labor Standards Act, passed in 1938, set a higher minimum age for laborers, depending on when they were working (e.g. during school) and what they were doing (e.g. hazardous jobs). Canada’s provinces have similar laws, and many other countries do, as well. The ILO (International Labor Organization) has worked to help less-able countries stop child labor, and over 160 countries have signed its amendment to prohibit the more-dangerous forms of child labor.

(Source: https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/content/fed-reserve-act.html):

The Federal Reserve Act (1913):

The Federal Reserve System was established by the Federal Reserve Act because many believed reforms in the US’s banking system were necessary. Banking operations were difficult because of all the laws for national and state banks. 12 Federal Reserve banks were to be created (as a result of the Act) by the Reserve Bank Organization Committee. The Federal Reserve banks were to be placed in cities called Federal Reserve cities, and the US (excluding Alaska) was to be divided into districts, where each district would have only one Federal Reserve city. These districts would be known as Federal Reserve districts. The Reserve banks were to include the name of the city they were located in in their title.

19th Amendment:

The 19th amendment granted women (in the US) the right to vote after protests and organizations raised public awareness on a national scale.

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After Thomas F. Dolan’s words exposing Armour & Co.’s actions were published by the press, the Pure-Food Investigation Committee was formed, leading to further public awareness of the immorality of many food suppliers. Several preservatives were discovered to be unhealthy, such as salicylic acid, borax, and formaldehyde. (Borax/ boric acid was used to preserve and mask the smell of the carrion (i.e. rotten meat) packaged and sold by Armour & Co.)

How could companies have done such things? I can’t understand how they could have been so inhumane, so uncaring. I speak of the people behind companies who knew the harm they were doing and didn’t care. Then again, in a sense, they are just as bad as those who go to war or want to go to war in the sense they are alright with other human beings being harmed.

The source from which I got this information, listed somewhere above, called the Beef Trust monopolistic, though I don’t yet know whether the companies involved in the trust had formed a monopoly in that market or were close to forming one. This trust consisted of the 5 biggest meatpacking companies, and journalists worked to expose their tactics to avoid government inspection as well as the unsanitary practices in their packinghouses. Of course they didn’t want the government inspecting them: they knew what they were doing was unethical yet didn’t care.

How disgusting.

As an INTP I was always very obsessed with objectivity, with the object truth, and so on. I kept emotions far away from myself when trying to find truth, trying to not form opinions and simply take in the facts and make connections. My younger self wouldn’t have been so disturbed by this information, probably, because they wouldn’t have put themselves in the world in which this was occuring. My younger self would have disconnected themselves from the world, or have attempted to, and would thus not be so emotionally impacted by this information. When people told my younger self their opinions, my younger self preferred not to comment, remaining neutral.

What exactly changed? It seems I began accepting my humanity when I realized perfection was an unreachable goal. Part of this meant accepting my emotions. I also somehow understood that the point, that my objective, should be something other than seeking absolute objective truth: it should rather be understanding. Understanding meant understanding people’s emotions, opinions, and perspectives. Understanding meant allowing myself to form opinions of my own. And somehow, somewhere along this road, I accepted morals, I realized it was okay to think about my opinions and not completely disconnect myself; I realized finding the absolute objective truth was too black and white, too narrow. To understand the world meant to accept the irrational parts of it, too. Emotions are irrational, sort of—they have a sense-making reason for existing, but people oftentimes listen to them instead of to reason.

To understand the world meant to accept it for its humanity, for its imperfection. I was living in this rigid world, where I only took in what made sense and left the other stuff out. As a result I ignored much of the world.

The funny thing is, that in my desire to be what I thought was objective, I was /not/ being objective. I sought sense, not understanding. When I read this article which I mentioned to you, about INTPs, that told me that a common INTP mistake was to make life about feeding Ti instead of understanding, the desire to take in things that made sense and those things alone took control of the INTP, and the INTP became rigid, unflexible, and the opposite of objective. There were some sense-making symptoms/ signs, but I knew by that point that I had fallen into that trap.

Since then I accept my humanity, since then I accept my emotional side and my morals instead of thinking of them as impediments. I wanted to be entirely objective, to find the truth… the unchanging truth… and it felt like the right thing to do, it felt like the most noble cause. Yet I was denying my humanity to carry out my goal, and I was not focusing on understanding, and as time went on it made me more and more unhappy.

Since then I have changed. And I find it interesting that now I feel when I read things, that now I don’t remove myself from the world; that now I understand things a lot better than I used to and in a much more objective fashion, and now I feel a lot more human and a lot less like a machine.

And being human is perfectly wonderful. Accepting my humanity was something I did not do for a long time, but now that I have accepted it, I have done so completely, and I am perfectly happy.

I am glad to now have a goal that has more meaning.

It is to understand, and to be happy while doing so.

Understanding others means being patient in ways I never was before. It means putting on different lenses whereas I thought there was only one correct way of seeing before. It means understanding that everyone can teach me something new, that everyone is special and useful, that everyone has their own gifts.

It means accepting the humanity of myself and others and wanting to help my community (i.e. humanity).

It means accepting perfection doesn’t exist. It means appreciating the world regardless.

I find that now I allow myself to get attached to people, now I value people more, now I care about others’ wellbeing. When I think about how I used to be, literally a few weeks ago, I’m startled. What doesn’t surprise me is how much I changed; new information very often makes me rethink my life and makes me make deep and impactful changes of personality. What does surprise me is that I used to be so cold. And I used to think that was a virtue.

(Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rNu8XDBSn10):

A little off-topic, what is the United Kingdom? The United Kingdom is a body of 4 countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. People in Northern Ireland are called Northern Irish. People in Wales are called Welsh. Those in Scotland are called Scottish; those in England are called English.
But where is Great Britain? Well, Great Britain consists of a large part of England, Scotland, and Wales. It does not consist of Northern Ireland at all.

The British Isles are the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, as seen in this picture. I really like having a feel for the geography and location of things.

In this picture, the pale yellow regions are collectively termed the British Isles. Ignore the orange part: that’s France, and France is not a part of this group of Islands:

The reason I say that Great Britain consists of /part/ of Wales, England, and Scotland is because, according to the visual provided by the maker of the video, 1 minute and 22 seconds in, (1:22), the “black area” is what Great Britain consists of, but there are pieces of its 3 constituent countries peeking out from beneath the black mass. Those areas, as the video author confirmed verbally, are /not/ part of Great Britain.

So what is Great Britain? A geographical area made up of land from England, Wales, and Scotland, though parts of those 3 countries do not form a part of Great Britain. I’m trying to be as clear as possible. When people say “Great Britain,” though, they’re usually not being totally technical (according to the video author), and are referring to England, Scotland, and Wales collectively (i.e. as a whole).

The island of Ireland consists of Northern Ireland (which is not a part of Great Britain but /is/ a part of the United Kingdom) and the Republic of Ireland.

Northern Ireland is a country, and the Republic of Ireland is another; therefore the island of Ireland consists of 2 countries.

The British Isles are a group of islands. The 2 largest islands are Ireland (which has Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland) and Great Britain (which has large parts of England, Wales, and Scotland), but those are not the only islands which form the British Isles. There are some English islands, some Welsh islands, and some Scottish islands which are neither a part of GB or the island of Ireland.

Britain once had expanded itself to owning about ¼ the world’s land, according to CGP Grey, who uploaded the video. The United States gained independence before India, and Mahatma Gandhi played a huge role in India gaining its independence.

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This is definitely off-topic, but time has passed since I wrote what I did above the period.

Both butter and margarine contain saturated fats, which clog our arteries. That’s bad for our health. Margarine contains trans fats whereas butter does not: the nutrition labels can help us make informed decisions. Trans fats also clog arteries, as they are a type of saturated fat, and lead to cognitive decline and heart failure. Neuroscientist Richard Restak advised all to have no tolerance for trans fats—to ingest none—in his book ‘Think Smart’.

People (an alternative to ‘guys’), read the nutrition labels on foods you plan on eating.

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The largest of the British Islands are north of France and are Great Britain and Ireland. Great Britain consists of most of England, most of Wales, and most of Scotland. The United Kingdom consists of all of England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. The island of Ireland has two countries on it: Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

The Crown, and the monarchy, has control over the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland). The Crown also controls the Crown Dependencies, which are part of the British Isles.

Some independent nations who used to be colonies of the British Empire violently freed themselves (India, the US), while other nations that are now independent did so diplomatically. They still “recognize the Crown” as a result. Those independent nations which still answer to the Crown are part of the Commonwealth Realm.

Like the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories are not independent and are under the rule of the Crown. Unlike the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories do not belong to the British Isles.

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A quorum can be the minimum number of members that must be present at a gathering (like an assembly) for whatever occurs at that gathering to be valid.

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