The thing about my style of writing is that I don’t blame anyone for not wanting to read my posts. They’re pretty disorganized, and I think people read posts not so much to learn whatever, but more to learn a specific something. Some of my posts will be more specific, but my life is not so ordered. Each day I learn about unconnected things because I am in school and the homework I do is from various classes, and I’ve gotten used to devote relatively short bits of time to different subjects. That is reflected in my posts.
If you do read my posts, however, I appreciate it!
I watched the first CrashCourse video in the chemistry playlist and went over some past information. I’m doing chemistry in school, so I’ve already learned those things, but I don’t mind going over it again at all, since it solidifies what I know and allows me to clear up some of the natural confusion caused by memories getting older. I really enjoy CrashCourse’s videos, I recommend watching them. They’re fun, light-hearted, informational, interesting, and humorous.
Everything is made up of atoms. Simple concepts such as this must be understood very well so that information may be added to one’s memory which can be understood only when the simpler things are understood. I consider chemistry to be but another knowledge structure, and you have to make your foundations as strong as you can, because not doing this will really limit how much you can build/ how much you can learn. Einstein proved the existence of atoms and molecules mathematically, after Robert Brown was examing pollen grains floating in water under a microscope and noticed the pollen grains kept moving despite there not being any apparent reason for them to move. Atoms had actually been predicted long before this by those who had wondered what would happen if you took something and cut it in half again and again and again. What would you reach eventually? ‘Atom’ is of Greek origin and means indivisible, though atoms can be divided, actually. Atoms are made of subatomic particles, called such because they are smaller than the atom they make up. They are the electron, neutron, and proton. Protons are positively-charged, electrons are negatively-charged, and neutrons are neutral. Neutrons and protons reside in the nuclei (plural for nucleus) of atoms, whereas electrons are on the outside and allow their atoms to participate in chemical reactions.
Protons and neutrons have around the same mass, if not the same mass, whereas electrons have a much, much smaller mass. Nucleons are the stuff that reside in the nucleus—so nucleons are basically protons and neutrons. Particles with the same charge repel each other when close together, so the neutrons act like a buffer and allow the protons to be in such close proximity.
To find out what element an atom belongs to, check its number of protons. On the periodic table, elements are listed according to number of protons. For example, all atoms of the element silver (whose symbol on the periodic table is Ag) have the same number of protons. The atomic number on the periodic table is the number of protons an element’s atoms have.
The number of neutrons two atoms of the same element have may vary. These two atoms are isotopes of the same element. Elements have isotopes, and those are basically different types of atoms, the distinguishing factor being the number of neutrons.
The mass number refers to the amount of nucleons in a certain atom. Basically, the number of protons and neutrons. Well, if two atoms of the same elements are isotopes of each other, this means they have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, which means they also have different mass numbers.
The atomic mass of an atom is the mass of its protons + its neutrons (electrons have such a small mass that it doesn’t matter enough to be taken into account when calculating the atomic mass). Since a single element has differently-sized atoms (some with more neutrons, others with less neutrons), then that element will have atoms with different atomic masses. The atomic mass shown on an element’s box on the periodic table is the relative atomic mass, being the average atomic mass of all of that element’s atoms all over the world. The different atomic masses of that element are taken into consideration, as is their relative abundance. This last bit means that some isotopes of Ag (for example) are more common (around the world) than others.
I did brief research on WW1 because I have an English project that I’m currently working on and I needed to learn enough about WW1 to figure out whether or not I would include it in my presentation. I’ve decided that I won’t, so I’m free to share with you all the information I gathered on the subject. (If I did use it on my project, I might not share with you certain research to prevent my teacher from pulling up this website when doing a plagiarism check. She might find similar expressions on this website and my project, and I’d have some explaining to do. I want to avoid that.) Here’s that info:
WW1 was fought between the Central Powers (the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria) and the Allied Powers (Japan, Italy, Russia, France, Great Britain). The US joined in 1917. The number of deaths was in the millions, with 21 million wounded and 9 million dead. It began in 1914 after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Franz Ferdinand had been the heir of Austria-Hungary, and he was killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government, which Russia sided with. Germany assured Austria-Hungary that it would back it up in the event of war.
Serbia appealed to Russia and got its support. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and Germany began attacking France (an Allied Power, on the side of Serbia) by wrongly crossing through Belgium, which at the time was neutral, while attacking Russia to the east. Germany captured the city of Liège while crossing through Belgium, and left death and destruction behind. Innocent civilians were killed.
Germany meant to quickly defeat France as part of the Schlieffen Plan, devised by a German Field Marshall, but British and French troops pushed back its advance. When corps left to fight off a Russian attack from the east, the Allied troops beat Germany in this battle, called the First Battle of the Marne. Trench warfare emerged, where soldiers hid in trenches to protect themselves from the enemy. Two significant battles in France took place in Verdun and the Somme.
For years, Russia attempted to break through German defense and move westward, but it was unable to. This continuous failure discouraged Russia’s population and caused disagreement, frustration, and resentment at home. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the new Bolshevik government ceased Russian participation. An armistice was signed.
Italy and Austria-Hungary battled on the border between the two countries. Germany aided Austria-Hungary after the 12th battle at the Isonzo River, and Italy received backup in the form of British, French, and eventually American, troops.
Germany had U-boat submarines. During the Battle of Jutland in 1916, Britain’s Royal Navy beat Germany and established its naval superiority, preventing Germany from attempting to break the Allied naval blockade again during the war. After a German U-boat sunk the British Lusitania (which had Americans on board), the US declared war on Germany. US reinforcements helped the allies push back Germany in the Second Battle of the Marne, a battle which was a turning point in the war.
After its allies surrendered, Germany sought an armistice, and WW1 came to an end on November 11, 1918.
The Paris Peace Conference took place afterward, where the Treaty of Versailles was formed in hopes of preventing disaster on such a large scale resulting from conflict. The harsh terms imposed on Germany to make it pay for its actions caused deep resentment in the German people, and this was ironically one of the causes of WW2.
You know, that’s a lot of info. Guess that’ll terminate today’s post, see ya!