So what is boiling? It is where a liquid becomes a vapor within the liquid and on its surface (whereas evaporation is when molecules on the surface of a liquid enter the gas state).
You already know that an increase in temperature increases the equilibrium vapor pressure, because with an increase in temperature, more liquid molecules have the energy to break free of the liquid and enter the gas state. With more gas molecules, there is more vapor pressure.
A liquid has reached its boiling point when it has a temperature where its vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure (the pressure present because of the atmosphere). The boiling point is a temperature. If the atmospheric pressure is lower than usual, then the temperature need not rise as much for the vapor pressure to equal it. Thus, with a lower-than-normal atmospheric pressure, the temperature/ boiling point need not be so high for the liquid to boil/ for the vapor pressure to equal the atmospheric pressure.
There’s a device called a vacuum evaporator which reduces the pressure of an environment in which liquid is maintained. With the pressure reduced, the temperature need not be raised as much (as it would have to be raised if the pressure was regular) for the liquid to boil (for the vapor pressure to equal the atmospheric pressure, which is in this case lowered). Remember, raising temperature raises the vapor pressure. I like to visualize this, it makes it easier for me to understand concepts—raising temperature raises the kinetic energy of liquid molecules, causing more of them to overcome the attractive forces between them and break away from the liquid, causing more of them to become gas molecules, causing the pressure of the vapor to rise. If it’s in a small environment, like a beaker, increase in gas molecules increases the number of molecules hitting the beaker walls, and the increase in temperature which is going on also makes these gas molecules move faster because they have more kinetic/ motion energy. So they hit harder against the walls and with more frequency, causing an increase in pressure.
I see it like a movie playing out in my head, and this really allows me to make these abstract-seeming concepts a lot more concrete, and malleable, and useable—because I understand what’s going on better. I recommend you try the same thing and see how it works for you.
Anyway, the vacuum evaporator is useful if you want to remove water from milk by boiling the substance, but don’t want the boiling to occur at regular temperature because then you would scorch the milk. Wouldn’t it be useful if you could lower the boiling point (cause the substance to boil at a lower temperature, one which would not scorch the milk)? Well, because boiling occurs when atmospheric pressure = vapor pressure, instead of doing the usual (raising temperature to raise vapor pressure until it equals atmospheric pressure), you can reduce the pressure of the container (make it lower than atmospheric pressure), and thus you don’t have to raise the temperature as much for the vapor pressure to equal it.
It’ll boil at a low-enough temperature for the milk to not be scorched, but the water will be removed, all thanks to the vacuum evaporator.
I think this is extremely interesting and I want to discover how other machines work as they do. I really do. The mechanisms behind them build upon such beautiful, sense-making ideas and concepts. If it hadn’t been for school, I wouldn’t have touched them so early, maybe at all.
I find it interesting—my dad is similar. He says that when he was younger, he had a great curiosity for how things worked, machines, particularly. I never did. I didn’t want to pull open a TV to see what it looked like inside (he did). But I do want to understand concepts, how things fit together, and how things work. But not just electronics—everything, I guess. I want to find truth and sense. I enjoy tackling problems.
I just enjoy doing engaging, interesting work.
But it’s not passion, it’s not euphoria, many times. I have to use my willpower to make myself do certain activities, like math for 40 minutes, or chemistry for 40 minutes. I’m not eager to do work like that because it’s a bit difficult and challenging, but I make myself do it because I know that if I stop I’ll become slightly depressed. Life without my work doesn’t have meaning. There is food, there are movies, there is music, there is Tokyo Ghoul—easy ways to get pleasure. But when life doesn’t have challenges, it’s meaningless to me, and when I go without doing my work, I feel down and broken. I don’t want to do my work usually, but I do it because I know that once I start doing it, I’ll derive satisfaction. It’s a steady form of enjoyment. I am immersed in some activity that challenges me and begins to interest me, and sometimes I feel awe, sometimes I feel love, sometimes I feel passion and great happiness.
I just don’t want you to think it’s perfect. Nothing’s ever perfect, and we all have our challenges.
Congress can make Constitutional Amendments.
Legislative limits executive:
Congress can choose to not pass laws the executive branch wants to pass.
Congress can refuse to direct funds to executive programs.
Legislative limits judicial:
Congress can impeach judges and remove them from office. Before judge nominees even become judges, the Senate can reject them (prevent them from taking office).
Congress can remove or add courts, and also “change the jurisdiction” of those courts. I looked up “jurisdiction,” and among its different meanings I found that “jurisdiction” is basically the power of making legal decisions.
The president is with the executive branch, and they can veto laws proposed by Congress, nominate justices of the Supreme Court and judges of federal courts, and override court decisions (e.g. the president can pardon people who have been condemned). Since the executive branch carries out laws, it can also do so in ways the legislative branch doesn’t like.